Recommended Nuts and Washers

Grade Identification Size Inches Recommended A563 Nut Washer
Plain Finish Hot-Dip or Mechanical Zinc Coated
Grade Style Grade Style
36 ASTM F1554 Grade 36 12 – 112 A Hex A Hex F436
158 – 4 A Heavy Hex A Heavy Hex
55 ASTM F1554 Grade 55 12 – 112 A Hex A Heavy Hex F436
158 – 4 A Heavy Hex A Heavy Hex
105 ASTM F1554 Grade 105 12 – 112 D1 Heavy Hex DH2 Heavy Hex F436
158 – 3 DH2 Heavy Hex DH2 Heavy Hex

1 A563 grade D nuts are rarely available. A563 grade DH or A194 grade 2H should be substituted.
2 The availability of A563 grade DH nuts in nominal sizes 1″ and larger is very limited and generally available only on special orders of 50,000 or more. For smaller quantities, ASTM A194 grade 2H should be considered.

Nuts

A563 Heavy Hex Nuts and Hex Nuts

The required nut specification for all F1554 anchor bolts is ASTM A563, which is the general nut specification for structural and mechanical applications. Depending on the diameter and finish of the anchor bolt, ASTM requires an A563 hex or heavy hex pattern nut. Heavy hex pattern nuts are slightly thicker and wider than hex nuts. The most common ASTM A563 grades found in the marketplace that are used with F1554 anchor bolts are A563 Grade A and A563 Grade DH. Low strength ASTM A563 Grade A nuts are found commonly in both hex and heavy hex patterns and are the recommend nut for both F1554 Grade 36 and F1554 Grade 55. A563 Grade DH high strength heavy hex nuts are required for use with F1554 Grade 105 high strength anchor bolts, however A563 Grade DH nuts are often not available in certain diameters, finishes, or domestically manufactured. In these cases an A194 Grade 2H heavy hex nut can be substituted at any time to reduce cost. This substitution is specifically allowed at any time per ASTM A563 and is stated in the notes under Table 3 Mechanical Requirements in ASTM A563. A563 Grade DH nuts and A194 Grade 2H nuts can always be used with all three grades of F1554.

A563 Grades

A Carbon steel, hex or heavy hex
B Carbon steel, hex or heavy hex
C Carbon steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex
D Carbon steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex
DH Carbon steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex
C3 Weathering steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex
DH3 Weathering steel, quenched and tempered, heavy hex

A563 Mechanical Properties

Grade Style Size, in. Proof Load, ksi Hardness, HBN
Plain Galvanized
A Hex 1/4 - 1-1/2 90 68 116 - 302
Heavy Hex 1/4 - 4 100 75 116 - 302
B Heavy Hex 1/4 - 1 133 100 121 - 302
Heavy Hex 1-1/8 - 1-1/2 116 87 121 - 302
C / C3 Heavy Hex 1/4 - 4 144 144 143 - 352
D Heavy Hex 1/4 - 4 150 150 248 - 352
DH / DH3 Heavy Hex 1/4 - 4 175 150 248 - 352
For UNC, 8UN, 6UN, and Coarse Pitch Threads

A563 Chemical Properties

Element Grades O, A, B, C D** DH**
Carbon 0.55% max 0.55% max 0.20 - 0.55%
Manganese, min 0.30% 0.60%
Phosphorus, max 0.12% 0.04% 0.04%
Sulfur, max 0.15%* 0.05% 0.05%
* For grades O, A and B a sulfur content of 0.23% max is acceptable with the purchasers approval
** For grades D and DH a sulfur content of 0.05 - 0.15% is acceptable provided the manganese is 1.35% min
Element Classes for Grade C3* DH3
A B C D E F N
Carbon 0.33 - 0.40% 0.38 - 0.48% 0.15 - 0.25% 0.15 - 0.25% 0.20 - 0.25% 0.20 - 0.25% 0.20 - 0.53%
Manganese 0.90 - 1.20% 0.70 - 0.90% 0.80 - 1.35% 0.40 - 1.20% 0.60 - 1.00% 0.90 - 1.20% 0.40% min
Phosphorus 0.040% max 0.06 - 0.12% 0.035% max 0.040% max 0.040% max 0.040% max 0.07 - 0.15% 0.046% max
Sulfur, max 0.050% 0.050% 0.040% 0.050% 0.040% 0.040% 0.050% 0.050%
Silicon 0.15 - 0.35% 0.30 - 0.50% 0.15 - 0.35% 0.25 - 0.50% 0.15 - 0.35% 0.15 - 0.35% 0.20 - 0.90%
Copper 0.25 - 0.45% 0.20 - 0.40% 0.20 - 0.50% 0.30 - 0.50% 0.30 - 0.60% 0.20 - 0.40% 0.25 - 0.55% 0.20% min
Nickel 0.25 - 0.45% 0.50 - 0.80% 0.25 - 0.50% 0.50 - 0.80% 0.30 - 0.60% 0.20 - 0.40% 1.00% max 0.20% min**
Chromium 0.45 - 0.65% 0.50 - 0.75% 0.30 - 0.50% 0.50 - 1.00% 0.60 - 0.90% 0.45 - 0.65% 0.30 - 1.25% 0.45% min
Vanadium 0.020% min
Molybdenum 0.06% max 0.10% max 0.15% min**
Titanium 0.05% max
* Selection of a class shall be at the option of the manufacturer
** Nickel or Molybdenum may be used.

A194 Grade 2H Heavy Hex Nuts

Like A563 Grade DH, ASTM A194 Grade 2H is a high strength nut with virtually identical mechanical requirements, but with additional heat treating and testing performed. This added heat treating and testing is required to ensure the nut performs at high temperature. ASTM A194 is a high temperature and/or pressure bolting specification that is often used in piping or mechanical applications. Due to the mass-production of these nuts for these applications, A194 Grade 2H nuts are often widely available and are economical in certain diameters and finishes making them an excellent substitution for any A563 nut. In particular, A194 Grade 2H nuts are substituted and commonly used in place of A563 Grade DH heavy hex nuts.

A194 Chemical Properties

Element 2, 2H, and 2HM 4 7 and 7M (AISI 4140) 8 (AISI 304) 8M (AISI 316)
Carbon 0.40% min 0.40 - 0.50% 0.37 - 0.49% 0.08% max 0.08% max
Manganese 1.00% max 0.70 - 0.90% 0.65 - 1.10% 2.00% max 2.00% max
Phosphorus, max 0.040% 0.035% 0.035% 0.045% 0.045%
Sulfur, max 0.050% 0.040% 0.040% 0.030% 0.030%
Silicon 0.40% max 0.15 - 0.35% 0.15 - 0.35% 1.00% max 1.00% max
Chromium 0.75 - 1.20% 18.0 - 20.0% 16.0 - 18.0%
Nickel 8.0 - 11.0% 10.0 - 14.0%
Molybdenum 0.20 - 0.30% 0.15 - 0.25% 2.00 - 3.00%

Heavy Hex Nut Dimensions

Click table to show drawingHeavy Hex Nut
Bolt Diam. F C H Weight
(lbs.)
Width Across Flats Width Across Corners Thickness
Basic Max Min Max Min Basic Max Min
12 78 0.875 0.850 1.010 0.969 3164 0.504 0.464 0.07
58 1116 1.062 1.031 1.227 1.175 3964 0.631 0.587 0.12
34 114 1.250 1.212 1.443 1.382 4764 0.758 0.710 0.20
78 1716 1.438 1.394 1.660 1.589 5564 0.885 0.833 0.30
1 158 1.625 1.575 1.876 1.796 6364 1.012 0.956 0.43
118 11316 1.812 1.756 2.093 2.002 1764 1.139 1.079 0.59
114 2 2.000 1.938 2.309 2.209 1732 1.251 1.187 0.79
138 2316 2.188 2.119 2.526 2.416 11132 1.378 1.310 1.02
112 238 2.375 2.300 2.742 2.622 11532 1.505 1.433 1.31
158 2916 2.562 2.481 2.959 2.828 11932 1.632 1.556 1.62
134 234 2.750 2.662 3.175 3.035 12332 1.759 1.679 2.04
178 21516 2.938 2.844 3.392 3.242 12732 1.886 1.802 2.41
2 318 3.125 3.025 3.608 3.449 13132 2.013 1.925 2.99
214 312 3.500 3.388 4.041 3.862 21364 2.251 2.155 4.19
212 378 3.875 3.750 4.474 4.275 22964 2.505 2.401 5.64
234 414 4.250 4.112 4.907 4.688 24564 2.759 2.647 7.38
3 458 4.625 4.475 5.340 5.102 26164 3.013 2.893 9.50
314 5 5.000 4.838 5.774 5.515 3316 3.252 3.124 11.94
312 538 5.375 5.200 6.207 5.928 3716 3.506 3.370 15.26
334 534 5.750 5.562 6.640 6.341 31116 3.760 3.616 18.12
4 618 6.125 5.925 7.073 6.755 31516 4.014 3.862 21.80

Dimensions per ASME B18.2.2 1987 (1999)

Hex Nut Dimensions

Click table to show drawingHeavy Hex Nut
Nominal Size F C H Part Numbers
Width Across Flats Width Across Corners Thickness Domestic Import
Basic Max Min Max Min Basic Max Min Plain Galvanized Plain Galvanized
12 34 0.750 0.736 0.866 0.840 716 0.448 0.427 16270 16271 11701 11702
58 1516 0.938 0.922 1.083 1.051 3564 0.559 0.535 16272 16273 11703 11704
34 118 1.125 1.088 1.299 1.240 4164 0.665 0.617 16274 16275 11705 11706
78 1516 1.312 1.269 1.516 1.447 34 0.776 0.724 16276 16277 11707 11708
1 112 1.500 1.450 1.732 1.653 5564 0.887 0.831 16278 16279 11709 11710
118 11116 1.688 1.631 1.949 1.859 3132 0.999 0.939 16280 16281 11711 11712
114 178 1.875 1.812 2.165 2.066 1116 1.094 1.030 16282 16283 11713 11714
138 2116 2.062 1.994 2.382 2.273 11164 1.206 1.138 - - 11715 11716
112 214 2.250 2.175 2.598 2.480 1932 1.317 1.245 16286 16287 11717 11718

Dimensions per ASME B18.2.2 1987 (1999)

Washers

F436 Washers

Unless otherwise specified ASTM F1554 requires a F436 type 1 hardened washer. This washer is a common mass-produced washer typically used with structural bolts and high-strength bolts of many different specifications. Unlike the general purpose and low grade F844 washer, the F436 washer is heat treated to a required hardness range and is designed for mechanical and structural use. The dimensions below show the standard dimensions for stock F436 washers that are economical and readily available. Custom F436 washers that can be thicker, square, or much larger can be custom manufactured, but at much higher cost and longer lead time.

F436 Mechanical Properties

Plain Finish Hot Dip Galvanized
Rockwell Hardness 38 to 45 HRC Rockwell Hardness 26 to 45 HRC

F436 Chemical Requirements

Element Type 1 Type 3
Phosphorous, max 0.040% 0.040%
Sulfur, max 0.050% 0.050%
Silicon - 0.15 - 0.35%
Chromium - 0.45 - 0.65%
Nickel - 0.25 - 0.45%
Copper - 0.25 - 0.45%
Weathering steel washer may also be made from any of the steels listed in Table 2 of A325.

Hardened Washer Dimensions

Click table to show drawingWasher
Bolt Size B A C Weight (lbs.) Per 1000 Pieces Part Numbers
Outside Diameter Inside Diameter Thickness Domestic
Min Max Plain Galvanized
12 1116 1732 0.097 0.177 18 16440 16441
58 1516 1116 0.122 0.177 33 16442 16443
34 11532 1316 0.122 0.177 41 16444 16445
78 134 1516 0.136 0.177 64 16446 16447
1 2 1116 0.136 0.177 82 16448 16449
118 214 1316 0.136 0.177 105 16450 16451
114 212 138 0.136 0.177 133 16452 16453
138 234 112 0.136 0.177 163 16454 16455
112 3 158 0.136 0.177 200 16456 16457
158 314 134 0.178 0.28 320 19481* 19482*
134 338 178 0.178 0.28 307 16458 16459
178 312 2 0.178 0.28 360 16471* 16472
2 334 218 0.178 0.28 380 16460 16461
214 4 238 0.24 0.34 560 16462 16463
212 412 258 0.24 0.34 720 16464 16465
234 5 278 0.24 0.34 920 16611 16612
3 512 318 0.24 0.34 1040 16613 16614
314 6 338 0.24 0.34 1350 - -
312 612 358 0.24 0.34 1633 18490 18460
334 7 378 0.24 0.34 1880 - -
4 712 418 0.24 0.34 2200 18461 18462
Dimensions per ASTM F436
*Usually domestic

Other Accessories

Anchor sleeves

The alignment of anchor bolts and setting them perfectly into concrete in the required location so that the structure or equipment can fit perfectly over the anchor bolts is a difficult task. Often anchor bolt sleeves are specified to make this process easier and more forgiving. Anchor sleeves create a cavity or void in the concrete where the anchor bolt can be minutely adjusted in the case that an anchor bolt is slightly out of alignment and needs to be adjusted to fit the structure. Later, the space that the sleeve creates for adjustment is filled in with grout after fit is assured. Portland Bolt carries both Wilson Anchor Bolt Sleeves and Contec Anchor Bolt Sleeves. At times an engineer may specify a custom sleeve that consists of a steel pipe that is welded to an anchor bolt or anchor bolt embed plate. These welded pipe sleeves are highly custom and are designed by an engineer.

Anchor Sleeve Dimensions

Click table to show drawingDimensioned Anchor Sleeve
Wilson Sleeves Contec Sleeves
Bolt Size Shell Size W x L Part Number Color Code Shell Size W x L Part Number
12" 2" x 5" 18255 yellow 2" x 5" 18296
34" -
58" 2" x 7" 18256 white 2" x 7" 18297
34" 18257
78" 18258
1" 3" x 10" 18259 green 3" x 10" 18298
114" 18260
112" 4" x 15" 18261 red 4" x 15" 18299
134" 18262
2" 4" x 18" 18263 blue 4" x 18" 18300
214" 18264
212" 6" x 24" 18265 brown 6" x 24" 18301
3" 18482
4" - - black 6" x 24" 18302
5"

Plates

Square plates, embedded plates, and templates are all commonly used with F1554 anchor bolts. It is very typical for square plates to be used in place of F436 washers on the projecting threaded end of the anchor bolt, but perhaps even more common is to weld or fix in place a square plate at the bottom of the anchor bolt for pull out resistance. Embed plates can be round or square and are custom manufactured per an engineer’s requirement for the specific foundation calculated loads. It is typical for these embed or top washer plates to be made from A36 of A572 Grade 50 steel.

Templates and assemblies

Anchor bolts are often grouped in sets of two, four, six, eight, or more and are set into concrete using templates that keep the formation of the foundation in the pattern required. Templates can be used at the top of the anchor bolts as a “throw away” template or can be pre-assembled with templates at the top and bottom of the assembly to hold the anchor bolts perfectly in place during shipping and concrete placement. Sometimes the bottom template is also a structural embed plate that serves for pull out resistance and also as a template to hold the designed pattern together. Anchor bolt assemblies can be shipped loose without any assembly to reduce shipping cost and then assembled onsite or can be pre-assembled and shipped in marked assemblies. Fully assembled anchor bolt assemblies are laborious and increase shipping volume, but often greatly reduce onsite labor and create a more seamless product that can be used right off the truck or easily stored without worry about parts going missing.